The REFOLUTION work plan is divided into seven workpackages. Two core technical work packages will develop and demostrate new fuel production technologies by FCC co-processing and hydroprocessing, while one is focused on fuel certification and standardisation. Other main activities consist of process design and digitalisation, and sustainability assessment. Furthermore, the work plan includes dissemination, business case development and exploitation of the project results.

Project management

Securing the allocation and coordination of all resources, and managing responsibilities to be implemented for the effective execution of the project; this includes monitoring project progress, and costs and administrative follow-ups.

Fluid Catalytic Cracking co-processing

Demonstration of bio-based aviation fuel production by FCC co-processing of pyrolisys oil (PO) and stabilised pyrolisys oil (SPO) at TRL 7. A robust FCC process will be developed through: identification of optimum FCC process parameters and catalyst for co-processing pyrolisis oils, maximizing the co-processing rates, FCC kerosene hydrotreating, and the validation of a large-scale FCC pilot plant.


Biofuels production and validation for marine and aviation fuels through hydroprocessing. The main steps include: testing the hydrotreating technologies, the production of pyrolisis oils for FCC co-processing, hydrotreating and deoxygenation, the subsequent production of hydrotreated and deoxygenated HPO, the development of efficient catalysts and decontamination.

Fuel validation, standardisation and certification

Analysis of the produced fuel samples, and assessment of their suitability as aviation and shipping fuels by checking their compatibility with industrial requirements: this will provide a rapid feedback to the fuels production activities and will support process development. This workpackage will also elaborate a concerted strategy paving the way for future fuel certification and standardisation.

Process design, green tracking and digitalisation

Process optimisation and safety assessment will be performed by implementing a comprehensive data exchange protocols and repository for the entire project. Futhermore, a innovative digital carbon tracking tool will be developed. The techno-economic assessment (TEA) will evaluate of the economical performance of the process concept by defining costs, namely CAPEX and OPEX.

Roadmap to sustainable business

Impact and sustainability assessment of the developed biofuels will be performed basing on LCA and TEA. Grounding in social sciences and humanities, the Responsible Research and Innovation approach will be applied to achieve the Social Licence to Operate (SLO) for the REFOLUTION process. The ultimate task is to create a roadmap to sustainable and acceptable business for co-processing and hydrotreating technologies.

Dissemination, communication, exploitation, public awareness and engagement

Maximising the outreach of the project activities, building networks within the R&D community, and generating impact beyond the lifetime of the project. Key stakeholders will be engaged through events and targeted initiatives. The project results will be disseminated to several audiences while preparing the conditions for their exploitation by partners and third parties.